But nearly everyone knows what they are being paid. If they realize that they are doing less well than their forebears, they become anxious. Ethnic nationalism creates an ego-preserving excuse for self-perceived personal failure: Other groups are blamed for bad behavior and conspiracies. Often, ethnic, racial or religious conflict follows.
Among the horrific examples are the atrocities committed in the name of nationalism during World War II — not coincidentally following the Great Depression. Friedman provides other such instances from the last two centuries in which ethnic conflict followed slow economic growth.
He does point out many exceptions to these generalizations: Some poor and unequal societies experience very little violence. But it appears that a sense of falling behind economically among a substantial segment of a population does encourage ethnic nationalism and conflict. The rise in inequality in our time represents a seismic shift in economic power away from the working class. Its cause is many-faceted, including globalization, the decline of labor unions, changes in political alignments and advancing information technology that is replacing jobs.
Even those who have not lost out yet in terms of economic power are fearful that they might. The causes of inequality, particularly advances in information technology, are not going away soon.
Both were accompanied by increases in borrowing by low- to middle-income people, who tried to maintain their standards of living. High-income people, described by the authors as desiring wealth for its own sake, did the lending. The loans attracted investors because high rates of interest compensated them for the risk of default. It could be made more realistic with some reference to psychology: Borrowing produced a sense of personal shame.
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A desperate optimism arose from wishful thinking bias , distorting judgment. Politics of ethnic identity in Nigeria Ethnicity is a social phenomenon that is manifested in interactions among individuals of different ethnic groups within a political system where language and culture are the most prominent attributes.
Religious identity Nigeria is the most crowded African country with a population of about million by World Population Prospects Ethno-religious conflicts The fact that an average Nigerian is very religious was observed by some sources Oluduro ; Ekundayo A case of the North: Boko Haram Between and , numerous conflicts have been witnessed in Nigeria.
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Inter-religious conflicts Inter-religious conflicts in Nigeria form part of the dynamics of identity politics. Major causes of ethno-religious conflicts in Nigeria Unlike other forms of social conflicts, ethno-religious conflict entails different ethnic groups that belong to different religions.
Conclusion This study in one sense has tried to look at the emergence of identities and their impact on the conflicts in the most crowded African country, Nigeria. Sources Adefemi, Isumonah V. Migration, land tenure, citizenship and communal conflicts in Africa. Nationalism and ethnic politics , 9 1 , pp. Alger, C. Religion as a peace tool. The global review of ethnopolitics , 1 4 , pp. Anderson, Gordon L. Anderson, Mary R. Community identity and political behavior. New York, Palgrave Macmillan. Innovation: the European journal of social science research , 23 3 , pp.
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Identity transformation and identity politics under structural adjustment in Nigeria. Jenkins, Richard Social identity. London, Routledge. Kura, Kabir H. A paper delivered at a conference on Muslim-Christian Cooperation…in…states of Nigeria.
Lewis, Peter Identity, institutions and democracy in Nigeria.